Essay On Type 2 Diabetes
"Direct evidence of the benefits of early detection of type 2 diabetes by screening are lacking and are now unlikely to be obtained." Khunti K, Davies M (2012)
Type 2 diabetes is common and more so now, evidence backing the efficiency and usefulness of screening is limited (Khunti K, Davies M 2012). There are no trials done of screened patients and non screened patients and thus no evidence to go with this perfect way of comparing the cost–effectiveness of this method (Khunti K, Davies M, 2012). Type 2 diabetes meets the criteria for screening, including being potentially asymptomatic, undiagnosed, there are diagnostic problems and resulting in no harm during screening. (Goyder L, Irwig L, Payne N 2012) on the other hand, cites that...show more content...
This, in turn, reduced screening uptake and was not efficient. To counter this problem the World health organisation recommended the use of glycated haemoglobin (Khunti K, Davies M, 2012). All of the models were through individual screening rather than a population–based method and there is no evidence to back individual rather than population approach. Since there is a finite amount of resources, resources used for assessing the risk and preventing diabetes are not used elsewhere where they are required. Serious diabetes complications are not resourced enough through this (Goyder L, Irwig L, Payne N 2012). Although a population focus rather than individual focus will free up health service resources for prevention of complications in people with clinical diabetes (Goyder L, Irwig L, Payne N 2012). (Khunti K, Davies M, 2012), uses the National Health Service Health Checks programme and the National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence's guidance on identification and prevention of type 2 diabetes future publication as evidence for screening. The NHS health check introduced in 2009 for people 45–74 years old, assessing health status and risk of diabetes. Whereas the National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence's guidance uses self–assessed risk scores and lifestyle recommendations to reduce risk. This compliments (Goyder L,
Type 2 Diabetes : An Overview Essay
Type 2 Diabetes: An Overview Diabetes mellitus is a disease that affects how an individual's body metabolizes glucose (Blair, 2016; Franks, 2012; Scobie, McLean, & Samaras, 2014; Spears, Schub, & Pravikoff, 2015; WebMD, 2016c). People diagnosed with type 2 diabetes do not produce a sufficient amount of insulin to keep up with the demands of the body; which leads to hyperglycemia (Blair, 2016; Franks, 2012; Scobie et al., 2014; Spears et al., 2015; WebMD, 2016c). Glucose is the main source of energy humans use and insulin makes it possible for cells of the body to use glucose properly. Type 2 diabetes is the most common form of diabetes, affecting 33% of individuals in the United States (Blair, 2016; Franks, 2012; Todkar, 2016). However, due to its insidious nature, many people go undiagnosed until serious complications arise (Blair, 2016; Franks, 2012; Scobie et al., 2014; Spears et al., 2015; WebMD, 2016c). Symptoms of type 2 diabetes include migraines, weight changes, polyuria, polydipsia, fatigue, blurred vision, numbness, and frequent infections (Scobie et al., 2014; Spears et al., 2015; Todkar, 2016; WebMD, 2016c). There are five commonly used tests of diagnosing type 2 (Blair, 2016; Scobie et al., 2014; Spears et al., 2015). Diagnostic tests are for testing for type 2 diabetes are provided (see Appendix). This paper will discuss causes and risk factors, complications, management, and coping with the disease.
Causes and Risk Factors Type 2 diabetes is strongly linked
Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus Essay
Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus (T2DM) is a chronic disease that is modifiable and preventable through diet and exercise. The incidence of T2DM is propagated by a sedentary lifestyle and excessive caloric intake. Maintenance of a desirable body weight, diet, and exercise are the mainstay therapy for T2DM (Buttaro, Trybulski, Bailey, & Sanberg–Cook, 2013).
I have chosen Shannon, a 30 year old single African American female who is newly diagnosed with T2DM for my health promotion paper. Shannon is obese with a Basal Metabolic Index (BMI) of 32 and HbA1c of 9.8 %. She is otherwise healthy with no known medical problems. When I first met Shannon, she was petrified of her diagnosis and the accompanied symptoms (polyruria, polydipsia, fatigue,...show more content...
These goals are in accordance with the nutrition and recommendations of the American Diabetes Association (ADA, 2008). Practical Application Of Transtheoritical Model for T2DM The Transtheoritical model (TTM) was utilized to support this health promotion paper. TTM offers guidance for individuals at all stages of readiness for change and it involves matching intervention approaches to an individual's current stage of change. Stage of change (SOC) is the central organizing construct of TTM. As the individual makes a behavioral change, it progresses through a series of change: pre–contemplation, contemplation, preparation, action, and maintenance. Moreover, TTM integrates several other behavior change constructs such as, decisional balance, processes of change, and self–efficacy (Johnson et al., 2008). Establishing a therapeutic environment, building rapport, and communication techniques are key to the behavior change process. Shannon was in the contemplation stage when I first encountered her in the clinic. She was aware that her recent unfortunate experience was caused by her obesity. Even though T2DM has a genetic predisposition, with glycemic control, physical activity (PA), weight loss and a healthy well balanced diet can help control and prevent disease progression and its complications (Fowler, 2007). Shannon was eager and determined in taking charge of her T2DM but had ambivalence on how to manage
Diabetes : Type 2 Diabetes
Type 2 Diabetes
They are two types of diabetes throughout the world but the second leading cause of death type 2 diabetes. Diabetes can come from your family background, lack of exercise, overweight, and Agent Orange exposure. The reason for this topic is that people need to understand what can cause diabetes, and how it deeply influences people around people with diabetes. Family can be one cause for a person to have diabetes but a family member could become diabetic from serving in the military service for periods of time, which some people know it as Agent Orange exposure. Not only adults have diabetes even children now is getting diabetes due to eating unhealthy foods that contains a lot of fat and sugars. Nonetheless, the children are not exercising or moderating the food intake that leads them to being overweight, which can equals diabetes.
It is hard to control diabetes because it deals with the making of insulin from the pancreas and how it regulates to the liver to pass sugars in the blood stream, when one organ does not work the process is slow down, and in some instances one may not be able produce much insulin to control the blood sugar levels. Stress can be an issue because sugars level can go up and down out of whack do not know where it can lead but it will not end up being good for the person. A person name Chuck served almost thirteen years in the military services has formed type 2
Type 2 Diabetes Prevention Essay
Prevention of Type 2 Diabetes For the purpose of this paper it will provide an overview of ways that diabetes, type 2, can be prevented if a person is at risk for developing it. Although there has been little research that diabetes can always be prevented there are ways that a person can delay or improve their symptoms.
Diabetes is a disease that cases blood glucose levels to rise higher than normal in the body. Type 2 diabetes is the most common form of diabetes when being compared to type 1diabetes. When blood sugars rises to levels higher than normal it is called hyperglycemia. Diabetes, type 2 can result in many different issues that affect the body. There are many complications that are linked with diabetes for example, higher risk...show more content...
Diabetes is a disease affects many different systems of the body. It can be a devastating disease and with the increasing numbers of people with the disease it is crucial that research in done to help prevent and control the disease. Along with the increase number of patients diagnosed with diabetes type 2 comings with the high cost of the disease. The complications and increasing cost of diabetes has drawn attention to the need for its prevention and its complications. With exercise and diet studies have shown that a diabetes type 2 diagnoses can be prevented or prolonged. Along with exercise to has been shown that nutrition plays a role in managing the prevention of diabetes. Also in the study conducted by the Diabetes Prevention Program Research Group that was shown that with people who took metformin before being diagnosed with diabetes had a lower change of developed type 2 diabetes. In conclusion through it is shown that maintaining a health diet, and exercising diabetes type 2 can possibly be prevented and with further research there may be a cure
Cause And Effect Essay On Type 2 Diabetes
In order to understand the cause and effects of type 2 diabetes on the body, it must first be asked "what is type 2 diabetes and what effects does it have on the body"? Firstly, there are two main types of diabetes, type 1 and type 2. Type 1 is an auto immune disease which results in the destruction of the insulin producing beta cells in the pancreas. Without insulin, the body cannot absorb glucose in the cells which is needed to produce energy. Type 2 diabetes is more common than type 1. Type 2 diabetes, rather than destruction of the beta cells in the pancreas, causes dysfunctions in carbohydrate and fat metabolism. Type 2 diabetes is a condition that while insulin is being produced as it should, the cells are failing to respond properly to the insulin production. This is termed, insulin resistance. As the condition develops the body can stop responding to insulin completely, this is called insulin deficiency. Acutely this results in high blood glucose which can cause a variety of secondary illnesses. There are a range of causes of type 2 diabetes including genetic and environmental factors that affect beta cell function and insulin sensitivity. The majority of diabetes sufferers are obese with central adiposity. This means that excess adipose tissue must play a critical part in pathogenesis of type 2 diabetes. The widely accepted reason for this is the...show more content...
This is particularly important when considering invasion of pyogenic and other bacteria. The recognition of non–self cells is affected and as a result the body's ability to fight infection is impaired (Johnston, et al., 2000). This is mainly to do with type 1 diabetes however and also normal cell function returns on good glycaemic control (Asanuma, et al.,
Essay On Type 2 Diabetes
Type 2 diabetes is the most common type of diabetes. Some of the causes are because people are not having a healthy diet and less exercise or none at all. Some of these people who have type 2 diabetes are also obese. So do people who are obese have a higher risk of getting type 2 diabetes than people without diabetes ?
Type 2 diabetes is when your body is not creating enough insulin to keep their sugar levels at the right level. According to a website called , 'comvita' Insulin resistance occurs when the cells in our body stop responding adequately to the insulin secreted, which leaves sugar circulating in our bloodstream rather than being stored for further use in our muscle, fat or liver cells. Insulin resistance is one of the initial factors that trigger Type 2 Diabetes. There are drugs like...show more content...
It can cause blindness, heart failure, kidney failure, impotence and lower limb amputation. According to the Mayo Clinic "Type 2 diabetes can be easy to ignore, especially in the early stages when you're feeling fine. But diabetes affects many major organs, including your heart, blood vessels, nerves, eyes and kidneys. Controlling your blood sugar levels can help prevent these complications" and by having these, this can also lead to death. It can also affect your lifespan, if you have type 2 diabetes, you can die at a young age or younger than your dying age. According to the healthline website "Type 2 diabetes typically shows up later in life, although the incidence in children is increasing. The disease, which is characterized by high blood glucose (sugar), or hyperglycemia, usually results from a combination of unhealthy lifestyle habits, obesity, and genes. Over time, untreated hyperglycemia can lead to serious, life–threatening complications. Type 2 diabetes also puts you at risk for certain health conditions that can reduce your life expectancy" This is the deadly risks of having type 2
Type 2 Diabetes Essay
Type 2 Diabetes in African American Community
Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus (T2DM) is the most common form of diabetes in the U.S., and it is a severe disease with numerous life–threatening consequences. T2DM occurs when insulin, which is a hormone released by the pancreas for sugar metabolism, becomes low or cannot be utilized by cells. In the normal condition, insulin circulates in the bloodstream and enables to convert starch, sugar, and all polysaccharides complex into glucose, which cells use for energy; however, in T2DM, there is continuously too much glucose in the bloodstream. When cells don't interact appropriately with insulin, blood sugar increases, and this phenomenon is called insulin resistance that leads to many health problems,...show more content...
Notice that is a huge lost to treat T2DM, and according to CDC, there is a total of $ 174 billion as an estimated diabetes costs in the United States, 2007.
Risk factors and Complications Related
The health problems linked to T2DM are largely diversified. Within AAC and African immigrants, there is a similar genetic tendency with a higher than normal level of Impaired Glucose Tolerance, which is equivalent to a primary phase of diabetes. As fact, research states that "Investigations of the genetic variation–underlying risk of T2D in African–Americans yield results that often support the existence of conserved biological pathways." (PNC, 2017). Moreover, the obesity is another risk factor along with lifestyles such as lack of exercise and unbalanced diet. The symptoms of T2DM can be easily distinguishable; therefore, people with T2DM are incredibly thirsty, and they may have other symptoms including, dry mouth, blurred vision, frequent urination, headaches, increased hunger, gain weight, fatigue...etc. All symptoms of the disease show that T2DM do not start suddenly, but when the preliminary phase is neglected, the T2DM becomes chronic, leading hyperglycemia, hypertension, kidney disease, nervous system disease, amputation, heart disease and stroke, to name just a few. Another aspect of risk factors are the lack of health insurance because of poverty of a large group within the community and lack of adequate resources as
Type 2 Diabetes Essay
Type 2 Diabetes: An issue for My Community
85 percent of both Type 2 Diabetes and its side effects are preventable, delayable or effectively treated, so why is Type 2 Diabetes such a huge problem and how can a person's change in lifestyle help them live a longer, healthier life?
Why is Type 2 Diabetes an issue in our community?
Type 2 Diabetes is the largest and fastest growing health issue we face in New Zealand. The Ministry of Health figures report that more than 240,000 people have been diagnosed with Diabetes (mostly Type 2) with another 100,000 people who have it. but don't know. The figures also show it is the 3rd highest cause of death in Maori males and 5th highest cause of death in Maori females. Research confirms that Maori...show more content...
When having diabetes a person should watch their weight (especially if there's a lot of fat around the waist), losing weight will helps your body use insulin more effectively. Basic rules or guidelines would be to always eat / exercise /take medication around the same time and same amount each day. Foods with a low GI (Glycaemic Index) and low in fat are the most effective as they produce a gradual rise in blood glucose and insulin levels because of their slow digestion, absorption, and gradual release of glucose into the
Type 2 Diabetic Essay
Diabetics don't live a normal lifestyle. They can't do all the same things as someone without Diabetes. Diabetic are restricted from many things. As a Diabetic they have to be knowledgeable on what they put in their body. For example, there are certain diets that Diabetics can NOT go on. One of them being a "no carb diet". Diabetics need insulin in order to survive. For their body to produce insulin they NEED carbs. Also, they have to inject insulin into their body depending on how many carbs they are eating during that meal. Carbohydrates are an essential for a Diabetic. Another diet Diabetics should never go on are "no food diets". Diabetics also are advised , not to smoke. Diabetes and smoking is an awful mixture because then they will greatly...show more content...
Type 2 Diabetics also need to avoid simple sugars because they will give Diabetics a bad blood sugar level and then quickly result to the need to correct their glucose level. Diabetics are also supposed to be held to at most 2 beers in one sitting. Foods are not the only thing that can affect their body in a negative or positive way. One big aspect that will differ how healthy each Diabetic is is exercise. Diabetics, especially type 2 Diabetics need to avoid being lazy. Diabetics NEED to exercise on a daily basis. When Diabetic workout they lower their glucose level and their body will respond in a positive way by giving them good numbers and they will feel a lot better. If they don't exercise then it will do the opposite to them. Diabetics bodies will respond in a negative way. By not exercising frequently, their blood sugar will increase the odds of getting heart diseases. According to Sheri Colberg–Ochs, a professor of exercise at Old Dominion University. "When the body is at rest, it has one mechanism for getting glucose out of the bloodstream. That way is insulin," says Colberg–Ochs. "What's so good about exercise is that even if the muscles are insulin resistant at rest, that's irrelevant with
Essay on Diabetes Type 2
Diabetes Type 2
1.Diabetes is considered a life style disease because it is not something you were born with it is something you bring upon yourself, stress, don't enough exercise, eating too much of the wrong foods, pregnancy or family history cause this particular disease.
2. Type 2 diabetes, or non–insulin–dependent diabetes, is the most common form of diabetes. It effects the respiratory system In Type 2 diabetes, either the body does not produce enough insulin or the cells neglect the insulin. Insulin is needed for the body to be able to use sugar. Sugar is the primary fuel for the cells in the body, and the insulin takes the sugar from the blood and into the cells. When glucose builds...show more content...
If you have a family history of diabetes, don't exercise on a regular basis. High blood pressure and/or high concentration of fats in a person's blood, or a history of gestational diabetes, which is a form of diabetes occurring in pregnancy, or giving birth to a baby weighing more than 9 pound can all contribute to the risk a person is at. Diabetes can strike anyone at any time during their life – from newborn babies through to the very elderly. There are nearly 1 million Australians with diabetes. Each one of these people is Diabetes Australia's reason for being. 3. The symptoms come on gradually but many people with type 2 diabetes symptoms are diagnosed after a blood glucose test. The Symptoms include: · Feeling tired · Passing urine frequently · Feeling constantly thirsty · Blurred vision · Itching of the skin or genital area · Slow healing infections · Numbness and tingling in hands or feet · Weight loss · Tiredness · Wounds don't heal easily · Increased hunger 4. Doctors prescribe a new diet which helps to loss weight and control diabetes are high protein, high carbohydrate and high fiber diets. As well as plenty of exercise. Many people need oral medication(s), a pill or tablet, These include the Sulfonylureas and Repaglinide (Prandin). Insulin is often used in small doses before bed to help prevent release of
Type Two Diabetes Essay
Untreated type two diabetes
Type two diabetes is when a person's body does not make enough insulin to digest the amount of glucose they consume. Roughly 27 million people in America have diabetes. Somewhere close to 86 million people have borderline diabetes that may turn to diabetes.(WebMD) In this laboratory, blood glucose levels for type two diabetic patients, and non–diabetic patients were tested every 30 minutes. The spectrophotometer was used to observe the absorbance levels of blood glucose. Type two diabetes can be genetic, or it can be caused by weight gain/obesity.
Materials and Methods
I. Developing a Hypothesis and Preparing the Samples
1. Develop a hypothesis about diabetic patients vs. nondiabetic patients
2. Obtain blood glucose samples for 0, 30, 60, 90, and 120 minutes
3. Obtain a "blank"...show more content...
An hour after the patient consumed glucose, their results climax to 1.5 absorbance showing their body has consumed it all, but has not been able to process it completely. Right after the results climax, the blood glucose levels begin to decrease and return back to normal. It is not safe for this process to take this long because the more glucose that is in the patient's body for a long period of time, the more likely the patient is to suffer from damaged blood vessels, organs, and many other complications. Discussion Untreated type two diabetes can cause short term and long term complications. Two short term issue is hypoglycemia or hyperglycemia. Hypoglycemia is wen your blood glucose drops to a severely low level. Hyperglycemia is when your blood glucose levels skyrocket and reach a very high level. This relates to the chart above and how long it takes a type 2 diabetic's blood glucose to return to normal. Blood vessels can be damaged by excessive blood glucose levels which effects blood flow to the eyes, kidneys and nerves. (Endocrine Web)
Essay On Type 2 Diabetes
The emerging concepts in the 5 studies include the effect of exercise on type 2 diabetes with regards to metabolic and glycemic control and/or oxygen consumption levels of individuals with T2D. From the articles, there is accumulating findings that cardiovascular disease is a resulting effect and a leading cause of mortality and morbidity in diabetic patients, but regular moderate and high–intensity exercises are effective in T2D management. These physical activities are associated with significantly improved glycemic and metabolic control, but such improvement may be affected by increased years of diabetes or insulin insensitivity. The rationale is that individuals with greater diabetic complications levels often have lower peak oxygen consumption (Estacio et al., 1998), which affects exercise capacity. Nonetheless, acute physical activity bouts can favorably change insulin resistance and abnormal blood glucose.
What was found similar in the studies is that frequent physical activities are beneficial in the management of type 2 diabetes; appropriate...show more content...
Some authors (Albright et al., 2000; Estacio et al., 1998) pointed out that certain microvascular and macrovascular complications associated with T2D impair exercise capacity. The rationale is that those with type 2 diabetes can adapt less to physical training as they have low maximal oxygen uptake (Estacio et al., 1998), yet modest increases in maximum oxygen consumption is essential in major reductions in cardiovascular risks and mortality rates (Albright et al., 2000). Therefore, findings by Estacio et al. (1998) in the NIDDM population without a coronary artery disease pointed to a possible connection between microvascular complications and the capacity to
Type 2 Diabetes Case Study Essay
Type–2 diabetes is a major, non–communicable disease with increasing numbers around the world. Type–2 diabetes occurs when the body cannot make enough insulin or the body is unable to consume the insulin that is produced. When type 2 diabetes is not properly managed, it can cause numerous health issues, including heart disease, stroke, kidney disease, blindness, nerve damage, leg and foot amputations, and sometimes death. Minor changes in a person's lifestyle can reduce the risk of the onset of type–2 diabetes or can decrease the risk of co–morbidities that accompany this disease (Asif, 2014). In the case study of J.M., there are several barriers the patient is experiencing that affect the way she manages her disease. J.M. has not seen a dietician since her diagnosis and eats large size portions during meals and snacks. She also eats meals that are high in carbohydrates. She is stressed about her husband not working for the past 8 months and is worried about their finances. The lack of money has caused her to not take dance classes, which is something she enjoyed and was a form of stress relief and exercise. J.M values her Hispanic culture very much, and celebrates Mexican holidays, which again includes eating a lot of carbohydrates of tortillas, beans, and rice. J.M. has been receiving misleading information about diabetes from the...show more content...
Nutrition is usually the most problematic aspect of diabetes care. According to the American Diabetes Association (ADA) there is not a "one–size–fits–all" eating pattern for individuals of diabetes (Evert et al., 2014, p. S120). The ADA also recommends a person with diabetes should be involved in self–management, education, and treatment planning with his or her nutritionist. Food can be very powerful in preventing or reversing type 2 diabetes and should be considered top priority when trying to lose weight and control blood glucose levels (Asif,
Essay on Prevention of Type II Diabetes
Every single day millions of people are bypassing simple steps to prevent Type II diabetes. As of January 2011, 25.8 million children and adults have been diagnosed with Type II diabetes (American Diabetes Association). Type II diabetes is a disease that causes high blood sugar levels due to a malfunction within the body to properly use insulin. The role of insulin is to lower and control blood sugar levels so they do not get too high. After people are diagnosed with Type II diabetes they have to immediately start taking care of it before it progresses into another serious disease, such as heart disease or kidney disease. Type II diabetes is irreversible and will have to be taken care of daily. Specifically, diet and exercise are proven...show more content...
Symptoms of Type II diabetes in a child may develop slowly or they may have none at all. If the child is seen to have any unexplained weight loss, increased hunger or thirst, even after eating, dry mouth, extreme fatigue, itchy skin or numbness or tingling in the hands or feet it is highly recommended to seek medical attention in order to start treating the disease quickly. The easiest and most effective ways of treating childhood Type II diabetes is by changing to a healthy diet, daily exercise, and taking medications that are specifically designed for children under the age of 18 to lower blood sugar. The medication Metformin is one of the only medications that a child can take in order to keep their blood sugar level low. The only other medication they could take if Metformin does not work would be insulin by injection. It is also highly recommended for children to monitor their blood sugar with daily tests to make sure they are not over or under their normal blood sugar level. The article states that "the same steps used to treat Type II diabetes in children can also prevent it". With this being said the forms of prevention of childhood Type II diabetes are reducing the intake of fats and sweets and increasing the amount of daily physical activity. For other age groups of people with Type II diabetes, the prevention and treatment options are very similar. The most common age group that develops Type II diabetes are
Essay On Type Two Diabetes
Diabetes In The United States
Diabetes is an insidious as well as a debilitating metabolic disease with variety of causes. (Bolajoko Idiat Ogunyinka ) Diabetes comes in two forms, type one and type two. Both types are manageable with different types of treatments and lifestyle changes. Many people live for years undiagnosed. "Diabetes remains the 7th leading cause of death in the United States in 2010." (National Diabetes Statistics) Unfortunately, a cure for diabetes remains undiscovered. Type one diabetes is an auto–immune disease, and it often requires insulin injections because the pancreas fails to produce enough, if any at all. Insulin helps the sugar in the body to provide and store energy. When a person is type one,...show more content...
This results in a buildup of sugar in a person's body, causing damage to blood vessels and nerves. Being overweight, smoking, and eating a lot of sweets can contribute to the onset of type two diabetes. Changing a person's diet and exercise habits can greatly reduce and possibly remove the effects of type two diabetes. To combat type two, the person affected would need to closely watch their carbohydrate intake. Reduction of starches and sugars will help the body maintain low sugar levels. Moderate exercise will also help along with oral medications to maintain proper glucose and blood sugar levels. "Some groups have a higher risk for developing type 2 diabetes than others. Type two diabetes is more common in African Americans, Latinos, Native Americans, and Asian Americans/Pacific Islanders, as well as the aged population." (Facts About Type 2) While most Americans that are type one diabetic are typically thin, and type two diabetics are usually heavier in weight, anyone can get diabetes. This is not a disease to take lightly due to its potentially fatal nature. The number of Americans diagnosed each year continues to rise. The earlier this disease is detected, the more likely it can be treated, and Americans could have a better chance at living out a long, healthy life. National diabetes month is November, so spread the
Diabetes : Type 1 And Type 2 Essay
Diabetes is a disease where the body is unable to produce or use insulin effectively. Insulin is needed for proper storage and use of carbohydrates. Without it, blood sugar levels can become too high or too low, resulting in a diabetic emergency. It affects about 7.8% of the population. The incidence of diabetes is known to increase with age. It's the leading cause of end–stage renal disease in the US, and is the primary cause of blindness and foot and leg amputation. It is known to cause neuropathy in up to 70% of diabetic patients. Individuals with diabetes are twice as likely to develop cardiovascular disease. There are two types of diabetes: Type 1 and Type 2.
Type 1 is characterized by the body's inability to produce insulin. It is caused by autoimmune–mediated destruction of pancreatic beta cells, which are responsible for producing insulin. There appears to be a hereditary link in people with Type 1 diabetes. Other factors have been known to cause Type 1 diabetes such as viral infections, toxins, and other environmental factors. Type 1 diabetes is the rare form, affecting about 10% of the diabetes population. Its onset usually occurs in people less than the age of 20.
Type 2 is characterized by the body's inability to use insulin effectively because of a combination of resistance to insulin as well as an overall decrease production in insulin. There is a genetic predisposition to Type 2 diabetes, but there are several other factors that also put an individual at
Type 2 Diabetes Essay
Diabetes mellitus, or better known as Diabetes, is an endocrine system disorder. In this case, your body is unable to produce enough or any insulin at all. Insulin, produced by the pancreas, has a very important role. When sugar is ingested from food, it is turned into energy for the cells in our body. Without insulin, the transfer of sugar into the cells would be compromised. Insulin is also vital to keep the right balance of sugar in the bloodstream (Hess–Fischl, 2015). If too much insulin is produced, blood sugar levels are decreased resulting in hypoglycemia. Hyperglycemia occurs when the blood sugar levels are increased (Sargis, n.d.). Diabetes is split into two types, Type 1 and Type 2. Type 1 is the more severe of the two...show more content...
"A major concern at this time is the rapid climb in incidence of Type 2 diabetes, with prevalence now estimated at about 9% (18 million) of the population greater than 20 years of age." Obesity and Type 2 diabetes are commonly associated (Gould & Dyer, 2011). In addition to the two types of diabetes, there are signs and symptoms that are easily detected and some that develop after diagnosis.
Signs and symptoms of both Type 1 and Type 2 diabetes are quite similar. With obesity linked to Type 2 diabetes, weight gain is an obvious sign and symptom. In contrast, a decrease in weight is seen more in Type 1 diabetes. Changes in bodily functions can also occur. Patients with Type 2 and Type 1 may experience an increase in urination. A decrease in fluids may lead to thirst and dry mouth. Those with diabetes also may notice they feel tired and hungrier more often than before (Gould & Dyer, 2011). With the signs and symptoms in mind, the many causes of diabetes is also important.
As previously stated, there is Type 1 and Type 2 diabetes. Due to the differentiation, the etiology of diabetes is divergent. Being insulin–dependent, Type 1 diabetes is brought about by the immune system eradicating beta cells, leading to the deficiency of insulin. In contrast, Type 2 diabetes has a basis that can often times be prevented to an extent ("Causes of Diabetes", 2014). Type 2 diabetes can develop through a number of ways. Obesity is a
Type 2 Diabetes Type 2 Essay
Type 2 Diabetes is a disease that is found in a variety of age groups around the world. This disease is growing at a rapid rate and it is impacting the health of this generation and future generations to come. Diabetes is a disease that impairs the body's ability to produce or respond to the insulin hormone produced by the pancreas. The insulin allows for the glucose to be effectively used as energy throughout the body. Diabetes causes carbohydrates to be abnormally digested, which can raise blood glucose levels. This means that the glucose is not being taken up by the cells that need it. The cells cannot take up the excess glucose that has accumulated in the blood, so it is excreted through the urine. This can lead to problems with the kidneys, central nervous system, heart, and eyes because high blood glucose can damage the blood vessels of these organs. This diseased is managed by adopting a diet low in fat and high in fiber, increasing physical activity, losing excess weight, and not smoking. If this...show more content...
The study had an overall total of 1150 participants. Although there were many participants to begin with, they did not provide all of the feedback the researchers had requested. This resulted in the expulsion of their participation, so their results were not included in the final reports of the study. The number of patients that did provide the essential information added up to a total of 901. The profile for a participant was a patients diagnosed with Type 2 diabetes in the last 6 months, but has been diagnosed no more than 10 years ago. They had to be between 35–70 years of age. Their BMI had to be more or less than 24 kg/m2 and have an HbA1c more or less than 6.5%. They also had to have treatment with a diet or oral glucose lowering medication. Those needing insulin shots, had been diagnosed with chronic diseases, or had a change in diet or lifestyle 3 months prior to the study were not included in the overall
Essay on Type 2 Diabetes
Type II Diabetes Mellitus: An Emerging Epidemic
Diabetes mellitus is a group of metabolic disorders characterized by inadequate insulin secretion by the pancreas or cellular destruction leading to an insulin deficiency. Depending on the cause of the insulin shortage, diabetes can be subcategorized into type I and type II. Type I diabetes (T1DM) is usually mediated by the destruction of b–cells in the pancreas resulting in decreased insulin production and secretion. Type II diabetes (T2DM) is the failure of these b–cells to secrete adequate amounts of insulin to compensate for insulin resistance and increased gluconeogenesis combined with an overall resistance to the insulin action (8., 1997). T2DM accounts...show more content...
Other symptoms such as damage to the kidneys, eyes, nerves, heart, and blood vessels can occur if the diabetes goes unnoticed for a prolonged period of time and glucose levels are not controlled (Novitt–Moreno, 1996).
The detection of T2DM can be difficult because the patient may or may not have many of the symptoms depending on how severe their case is. Many of the symptoms are very similar to those of type I diabetes making classification difficult. Some patients are found to have glucosuria upon routine urinalysis, which could lead to the diagnosis. Ketouria can also be detected but usually only occurs in only one forth of patients who have type II diabetes. Simple clinical features of T2DM can assist doctors diagnosing and classifying the disease. More than 85 percent of patients diagnosed are overweight or obese. A family history of type II diabetes is found in the majority of patients who are known to have T2DM. A skin condition known as aconthosis nigricans is also common and can be detected by routine physical examination. It is characterized by hyperpigmentation and a velvety texture caused by long–standing hyperinsulinism and usually is found around the neck, inner thighs, and antecubital areas (Nesmith 2001).
In addition to clinical signs, laboratory tests and evaluations are necessary to classify a person accurately. Diagnostic tests include fasting plasma glucose, random plasma