According to the article "Office Bullying and Cultural Differences", there are two formal organizational communications and one informal organizational communication.
Firstly, according to article "formal communication methods", SkillMaker (2014) showed that formal communication utilizes the formal network to transfer information and follow the position, role and rules which include sending an email to superior or holding a formal meeting to discuss business. In the case study, Margaret face office bullying due to cultural differences. The difference is Margaret learn how to respect a person from her father but Dana hasn't. From perspective of organizational communications, Margaret try to talk to her boss Mr. Tannen and write an email to the director of her department Mr. Gallow to complain about the rude behaviors of Dana.
Moreover, according to article "Informal communication methods", SkillMaker (2014) revealed that informal communication utilizes the informal network to share information to close relationships people such as friend, family and co–worker without email. The article revealed that Margaret ask her colleagues Trevor for some advices informally. Margaret and Trevor has a fellow relations and friendship and they had lunch together. Also,...show more content...
Mr. Tannen scold Margaret is troublemaker and Dana uses many bad behaviors to assault Margaret which will be classified as unethical communication. Dana didn't respect her when she began working in the Bureau. According to the Wood (2011), roles, rules, policies and cultures are the keys of organizational communication but Dana ignore those keys and believed that she is the supervisor of Margaret since she has more job experience. Therefore, Dana bullies her continuously. Eventually, Margaret accumulates many passive feelings which makes her a pessimistic
Formal And Informal Communication
Communication plays a key role in any organization, and the importance of both channels i.e. formal and informal communication cannot be undermined. As an organisation grows in terms of size and function, an immediate increase is experienced in the chain of command prevalent in the organisation. In most cases, the chain of command flows from the upper level to the lower level, creating a high power distance. When an information is dispatched within an organization from top to bottom it may lead to a loss or dilution of information in the process of transmission, this loss of information leads to the development of vulnerability and ambiguity within the organization which in turn leads to the development of an informal communication network called as 'Grapevine'. Grapevine or informal communication network is present in all organizations as it is a natural consequence of people interacting. Grapevine gives the people a platform to socialize and communicate their thoughts and ideas in an informal fashion. Informal communication tends to spread in all the directions, it may travel upwards, downwards and diagonally, spreading throughout the organizational across all levels inconsistently sometimes more rapidly than formal communication channels. The grapevine is an outcome of social contacts and is therefore unpredictable, dynamic, and varied as the people. It is not necessary that all the information passed through grapevine may be correct, many rumours or gossips also travel
The Challenges Of The Informal Sector
This pattern is common in developing countries, where "despite its growing importance, the informal sector tends to lack legal status and work takes place under the usual precarious conditions that have traditionally been associated with this sector" (Beneria, 2001, p. 35). They worked to empower the workers even through protection from police brutality and extortion. As Gandhi had that the struggle for a life of integrity required that oppressed peoples assert a new self–definition and press for its general acceptance Sewa is works in tandem with this ideal itself. This can be witnessed through the proposition that it rejected the more conventional terms "informal" and "unorganized" labour; its members called themselves "self–employed." The acronym "SEWA" itself meaning "service" it began with a survey of its members ' situation: 97% lived in slums, 93% were illiterate, and, on average, each had four living children. About one third were the principal wage earners in their families. They received very low wages and paid very high interest to moneylenders. The very ideals of Sewa can be said to be in accordance with those of Gandhi. They had to face a lot of resistance also from the government initially to work in this field. However, they worked together to create a better way of life for the people. It is also vital to understand the composition of the organization to fathom their achievement and also their constraints. SEWA members operate on a needs–based model, which
Communication acts to control member behavior in several ways. Communication process types are formal channels and informal channels. Formal channels are established by an organization to transmit messages related to the professional activities of members. Informal channels are spontaneous and emerge as a response to individual choices. (Robbins,2013)
Direction of communications are downward, upward, and lateral communication. Downward communication is communication that flows from one level of a group or organization to a lower level is downward communication. Group leaders and managers use it to assign goals, provide job instructions, explain policies and procedures, point out problems that need attention, and offer feedback. Upward communication flows to a higher level in the group or organization. It's used to provide feedback to higher–ups, inform them of progress toward goals, and relay current problems. Upward communication keeps managers aware of how employees feel about their jobs, co–workers, and the organization in general. Managers also rely on upward communication for ideas on how conditions can be improved. Lateral communication occurs among members of the same work group / level.
Modes of communications are oral, written, and nonverbal communication. A primary means of conveying messages is oral communication. Speeches, formal one–on–one and group discussions, and the informal rumor mill or grapevine are popular forms of oral communication. The advantages of
My Favorite Time of Year Essay
MY FAVORITE TIME OF YEAR
My favorite time of the year is naturally the time when I have the most fun. To me, that time of the year falls during the December holidays, or rather, it starts during the last term of school.
It may sound strange of me to include the period of examinations. But I like the way teachers leave us, students, by ourselves to do our own revision. There is hardly any homework to be done but there is a lot of studying to take up our time. Finally, when the examinations are over, we can all heave a joyful sigh of relief and look forward to the seemingly eternal holidays stretching out before us. Just before school breaks up for the holidays, there are a host of post–examination activities, among which is mass dancing...show more content...
Orchard Road is illuminated with colorful lights for Christmas. I usually view these lights twice; once before Christmas and once after, sometimes cruising along Orchard Road with my neighbor's family in a rented van, alongside an ordered mass of other slow–moving vehicles. We usually have a good time on these trips, joking and laughing.
Programs based on Christmas are also shown on television to add more joy to the season. I never tire of watching the animated cartoons or motion pictures of classics like "A Christmas Carol" by Charles Dickens.
Finally, after Christmas, I have to start buying my school–books for the new academic year. These books have "off the press" smell which makes me feel that I have to work hard the following year and make good use of these brand new and precious books which no one has ever used before.
The last day of the holidays is the end of my favorite time of the year and school starts the following day. I fell excited, but I also know that once school starts I would be caught up with work. However, I do know that the days will fly by so fast that I shall experience my favorite time of the year all over
Informal Employment And The Global Economy
Since the 1970s, in both the developed and developing worlds, the global economy has experienced a slowing down in the growth of modern of formal sector employment. Particularly in Latin America and Africa, most countries have been in the growth of informalisation and flexibilisation; although some countries in Asia have gone through moderate growth of modern economy (ILO, 1995). In 1995, World Bank estimates that beyond direct government control and the reach of trade unions, the share of the work force in informal sector form low–income countries is more than 80%. As the case stands, unofficial surveys with broader measures of employment propose that the scale of the personnel in informal employment is even higher.
Meanwhile, as a number of studies have confirmed, women workers predominate in informal employment (Standing, 1989). To guarantee the survival of themselves and their families, women use a wide range of informal employment. Informal employment has not only become a crucial method of female employment in developed countries, but also become a major means of female employment in developing countries, especially of immigrant women.
Recent years, the central questions have become an analysis of women's over–presence in informal sector after noting the increasing number of women's participation in informal economic and political activities. In 1973, at the International Population Conference, Ester Boserup presented that whether the feminisation of the informal
The Importance Of Informal Communication
Formal communication would need to be disseminated to the staff in order to prepare them for the transition to bedside reporting. One of the most effective ways of communicating formally is through emails that can explain that the process that will be changing and giving a date for which the reporting process to change. Then, educators and nurse leaders can have articles placed at the nurse's station that details why the change is going to occur and some of the pros and cons of the upcoming shift report change. Another way that the research can be presented is through PowerPoint presentations. The forms that will be used should be handed out to the staff to allow them to add things to the report sheet that they feel is important. Lastly, when the change is to be implemented there can be a small meeting at the nurse's station at shift change with the incoming and off going shifts to again reiterate the importance of why bedside reporting is critical and stress the benefits of it. Informal communication will occur between nurses throughout the process. Significant formal leaders in the process change will include managers, clinical educators, and charge nurses. Informal leaders to the process change include senior nurses as they will have a significant influence on the inexperienced nurses and their opinion of the change. The leadership being able to show that the change will result in significantly lower errors and higher patient satisfaction will make the change
My Definition of Success Essay example
"Try not to become a man of success, but rather try to become a man of value."
– Albert Einstein ––
My personal definition would not include "stuff" at all. No one will care (and neither will you) what kind of car your drove or how big your house was when you're on your deathbed. Your thoughts will not be about your job, the office or how much money you made.
Personal success is defined by how content and enjoyable your life is. That is not to say that challenges and disappointments aren't included in this. A rich, eventful and challenging life doing what you enjoy and positively affecting others seems to me to be just about right. Find a job you love and you'll never work another day in your life. I know I won't. In my...show more content...
Past, present and future are all important to keep in perspective. Looking back and not having regrets is extremely satisfying. Your current situation and your contentment with it are also very important, and having goals and milestones to work toward in the future keeps you motivated and keeps life interesting and challenging.
In this age in which we live, success is generally measured by the amount of money you earn, or the amount of wealth or power or number of promotions you've accumulated. I find that the older I grow, the more I view the people who are most happy and content with their lives as the most successful. Rich, poor or in between, they've tended to treat life as a journey, not a final destination. They took that trip when they were 25 even though they really couldn't afford it, they ordered the $55 bottle of wine with their filet because they knew that even though it was expensive it would enhance the meal so much more than water would. They took a chance on a start–up company, moved to Europe or Asia and experienced things that most people only dream about. If they managed to grow wealthy from the experience, so much the better. As long as moderation with most things is practiced, things won't spin out of control.
Bottom line rules for a successful life:
Always try new things.
Listen twice as much as you talk.
Travel as much as you can comfortably afford.
Faith and family always come first –
Formal And Informal Educational Experiences
Learning Autobiography (LAB # 1):
Formal and Informal Educational Experiences
Michael E Emmering
March 16, 2016
LAS 20010 College Seminar I: Exploring
Ottawa University Learning Autobiography (LAB # 1) In this paper you will learn my insights into my life. I will touch on my formal and informal education. I will reflect on the four Breadth areas of Ottawa University's program of liberal arts studies. Future goals, philosophy, values, and obstacles will be discussed. This will include significant people and events that have happened in my life.
Formal Educational Experiences My formal educational experiences start's with Field School, Field School is elementary school in Elmhurst Illinois. I went there from first grade to fifth grade. Elementary school is where I began my early years of education. Began interest's in reading and whiting. First learned the nature of my learning disabilities. I was diagnosed with dyslexia, and speech impediment. Which made learning hard from the start. Sandburg Jr. High School is where I went for my sixth grade education. I was only at Sandburg for one year, for the year that I was there I started going down the wrong path, started getting into trouble and hanging out with the wrong crowd. Midway into my sixth grade year I moved to the other side of Elmhurst. So for seventh grade I went to Churchville Jr. High School. During my time there I continued to have a hard time with my studies. I also almost got expelled
The informal economy
As Robert Neuwirth, who is a former business reporter, defines the informal sector or informal economy is that part of an economy that is not taxed, monitored by any form of government, or included in any gross national product (GNP), unlike the formal economy. Other terms used to refer to the informal sector can include the black market, the shadow economy, and the underground economy and how he refers it mostly is System D. The original use of the term 'informal sector' is attributed to the economic development model put forward by W. Arthur Lewis, used to describe employment or livelihood generation primarily within the developing world. It was used to describe a type of employment that was viewed as...show more content...
In Makoko, Lagos within the same community, there is business synergy. There is a real street sign in Lagos, Nigeria that Neuwirth mentions all of System D really doesn 't pay taxes and when he thinks about how the government is a social contract between the people and the government, and if the government isn 't transparent, then the people aren 't going to be transparent either, but also that they are blaming the little guy who doesn 't pay his taxes. There was one company that paid 4,000 bribes in the first decade of this millennium, and a million dollars in bribes every business day which occurs all over the world. This company was the big German electronics giant Siemens as a result this goes on in the formal economy as well as the informal economy. Statistics on the informal economy are unreliable by virtue of the subject, yet they can provide a tentative picture of its relevance: For example, informal employment makes up 48% of non–agricultural employment in North Africa, 51% in Latin America, 65% in Asia, and 72% in sub–Saharan Africa. If agricultural employment is included, the percentages rise in some countries like India and many sub–Saharan African countries beyond 90%. Estimates for developed countries are around 15%. In developing countries, the largest part of informal
An important tool that assists teachers in gaining a better insight into what their students developments are called assessments. It is the best way for teachers to see whether the student is grasping the content or to see if the content needs to be retaught. There are two different types of assessments they are called formal and informal assessments. Although both of these assessments are different, they are equally important to teachers and educators. Formal assessments are a formal way to see what a student has learned or has improved on during an instructional period. These formal assessments include; exams, diagnostic tests, achievements, screening, and intelligence tests. Informal assessments are tools that judge and evaluate students' performance and skill levels without making them take the tests the standardized way. There are no standardized tools to measure this type of assessment. Examples of informal assessments are; projects, experiments, and presentations given by the students in the classroom and other platforms, peer teaching, have the student retell a lesson or story back to the class or teacher, observations, checklists, and portfolios. Some students become nervous or have test anxiety when having to take any type of test, so it would be a good idea for all teachers to add both formal and informal assessments into their curriculum. One of the pillars of the act of reading is called Reading Comprehension. Reading comprehension is the ability
Difference Between Casual And Informal Language
With social media being one of the society's primary ways of communicating, individuals tend to forget just how to communicate grammatically when necessary. This can lead to a drastic change in our language. Young adults live their lives on social media, where they interact with one another and don't worry about how others see their grammar and punctuation. It is becoming so normal in society that when they enter a class, their writing is not properly written and many students now don't realize or notice the difference from proper and improper language. Students who don't spell correctly, who don't use the right punctuation, and who use slang, these individuals forget the way of writing properly and speaking the way it's suppose to be. Casual and formal language will be explained and how they vary in differences as well as similarities.
Causal language is also called slang, colloquial language, or informal language. These are the different ways to describe this type of language and many people including young adults are becoming used to writing and speaking in "slang" that they don't even realize. Many people use different forms to shorten sentences or phrases. For example, "Cyber slang is a term used to describe shortcuts, alternative words, or even symbols used to convey thoughts in an electronic document"... "Common cyber–slang terms that have made their way into popular speech include BFF (best friends forever), LOL (laugh out loud) and WTF
Compare And Contrast Yoga And Meditation
Nowadays life of people has become quite stressful. To reduce stress people are getting addicted to things like alcohol, tobacco and drugs. People are searching numerous ways to reduce stress. The best way to reduce stress is through meditation and yoga. Meditation and yoga is the complete package through which you can make your life fit, healthy and stress–free. Yoga and meditation when practiced together strengthen the body and mind connection, improving overall fitness and well–being. Both yoga and meditation, when done regularly, has proven to be highly beneficial. Though the practices of yoga and meditation have their roots in ancient cultures, both have become modern day movements.
What Is Meditation?
Meditation is an ancient process through which a person can get a state of mental silence. Meditation...show more content...
Vinyasa Yoga– Vinyasa yoga sometimes often called as power yoga is a well known sequence like the sun salutation, a flowing series of bending, and stretching Asanas. Expect to do standing and seated poses which develops strength, flexibility, and balance.
Iyengar Yoga– This method emphasizes proper alignment to toughen the muscles and support the joints.
Bikram Yoga– Founder Bikram Choudhury created this style of hot yoga in the 1970s. To create the climate as same as above, studios are heated to a sauna to 105 degrees Fahrenheit, with a 40 percent humidity level. Heat loosens your muscles, increasing your ability to stretch.
Kundalini Yoga– This form of yoga was created to energize the body and calm the mind through movement. The chanting of various mantras, and breathing. The goal is to release the energy that kundalini which is stored at the base of the spine.
Ashtanga Yoga– This type of yoga consists of a unvarying sequence of poses. Ashtanga yoga requires strength and perseverance.
Informal Communication Essay
The use of informal language has become a widespread problem today due to the use of text messaging among one another. Many people engage in conversations and do not even realize that they are using improper grammar majority of the time, along with informal speaking. This also has become very popular in society because of the improper language being used, also known as "slang." Having a conversation with a professor, nurse, or a judge would not be the same as having a conversation with your best friend, cousin, or maybe a classmate. Along with even a less personal conversation, such as text messaging, can take place in using informal language, the main communication problem that may be influencing the way we conversate. The idea of text message is to have a quick conversation with someone, possibly at a time when the recipient cannot talk on the phone or face to face. People tend to use the most improper grammar when communicating through text messaging because you use more and more acronyms instead of tying the whole word or phrase out. Basically, people are trying to find the effortless way to explain their self, which in some cases is not a clever idea. However, some acronyms are made up by different people, which leads to having more improper grammar that then forms into informal language. For example, a common acronym while texting would be "Lol" which is known to be "laugh out loud." (Craig, 2003, 120–121) Another example is, if someone wanted to say, "I'm
Personal Narrative: My Special Object
My Special Object Omg what if you could talk to everyone with just one object. That would be heaven wouldn't it well guess what. You can isn't that awesome and all you gotta do is one thing or a couple. So if you would like to talk to everyone with just one thing do what i say. Well first ask your parents or if you're an adult take your car and go to the store and go ask where are your wifi boxes and of course do not go to a grocery store go to a store like walmart or something like that and ask them where their wifi boxes are and they will tell you it really doesn't matter what one you get then you check out buy it and then go home and find a spot where you wanna put it and then put it there and then put it there and if you can't figure out
What Are The Reasons For Informalisation
Reasons for Formation of Informal Sector
1.) Informalisation is correlated to income and development i.e. Impacts of globalisation on trade openings and employment generation.
From the advent of neo liberalization, trade opening became a common phenomenon across countries. This meant that the goods produced in the country could be exported and the producers could earn greater profits. However, at the same time there is a large influx of goods from other countries. In order to keep pace with the growing competition, more goods had to be exported rather than imported. Cheap labour and technology hence became the most sought after solution for producing large amount of goods at a cheaper and faster pace. Large firms, in order to maximize their profits, started hiring labourers on contractual basis. This had two impacts:
Firstly, a large...show more content...
Though people are now being employed, it doesn't contribute to the GDP since this sector is a grey/shadow sector.
Apart from this, there are several other reasons for informalisation such as:
2.) Governance and regulatory burdens
Another major reason for informality is the governance and the regulatory structure. According to De Soto, burdensome regulations thwart the efforts of small entrepreneurs and thus force them to stay in shadow. Interaction of governance with regulations also leads to informality.
Regulation structure which includes high taxation, lack of pension plan, social security, MMIC based measure coupled with other social factors like level of schooling, share of youth, share of rural population and share of agriculture in GDP, encourages people to remain in the informal sector. Also government indicators such as presence of corruption, weak rule of law and poor level of democracy also cause informality.
3.) People's perception about the use of the taxes to provide
Informal Essay : Family Tradition
I have a family tradition every year July 4th. We all know that July 4th is celebrated for Independence day. Others celebrate this holiday differently. Me and my mother reaches out to our close ones in the family, this is because we do not often see our family every year. So we figured July 4th is the special day every year to bring the loved ones and family together. I see my family quite often, our get togetherness are very entertaining. I believe family matters, the way I show others in my life that they actually matter to me is a big blessing. I am committed to making sure that I prepare the time being of this special day. My family get together is taken place in Carrolton Georgia, Carrolton Beach. Me and my mother usually sends letters in the mail or make a phone call a week before our event. My family responds and then we write a list of names of all the family members that can attend. When the actual day comes, I would find a spot in the shade where there are tables because usually it 's really hot out around this time. It 's summer. After finding the spot, me and my mom sets up a grill to grill meats such as hotdogs, hamburgers, chicken, ribs, and more. We also bring a huge cooler of drinks to keep us hydrated. Once the family have arrived we all sit down and talk, share memories, and bless the food and all eat together. When coming out to the beach, me and my cousins would go down and play on the water. My mom, mainly the older
Essay on The Importance of Informal Education
The Importance of Informal Education
Informal education has for a long time been considered very controversial in the education world and looked upon as just for entertainment. Informal education is commonly defined as learning that takes outside of formal school settings. Informal education can be things such as field trips to science centers, aquariums, museums, zoos, or planetariums. All of the following places are considered to be "informal settings" because they are all outside the classroom area. An educational curator at a small museum in Jackson Hole, Wyoming is as much an informal educator as a director of educational programs for the Smithsonian Institution. Often informal educators are retired K–12 teachers that have...show more content...
Another reason understanding of science is so important is because the public believes that there is a large gap between itself and the understanding of learning science. It is vital that science be taught in schools so students can understand the world around them. This is a very difficult task for even the most experienced teachers alone, which is a reason informal education is needed.
Teachers can teach from a book, give paper handouts, and show videos of experiments happening, but for students to be able to see scientific processes happening before their eyes lets them recall what they learned in class and can implement it into their everyday lives. For educational programs in classrooms or parks alike the challenge "is to make science information relevant to the lives of the public and explain scientific findings in ways that the public can use.
There are three major themes regarding informal education. The first is curiosity or intrinsically motivated learning. Intrinsically motivated learning is the wanting to learn that comes from within a student, not from an outside source like a teacher.
Second is that it offers multiple modes of learning, and last is exploration during the learning process and existence of self–developed world views. There are also two components to how people learn in informal settings. The first is the previously described prior knowledge. Having knowledge of a subject before going
DIFFERENCE BETWEEN FORMAL AND INFORMAL IMPERIALISM
Difference between formal and informal imperialism
Throughout the history of the world, different kingdoms have been competing to expand their territories. In most cases, the expansion of theses territories has been at the expense of weaker territories that are incapable of fighting back effectively owing to different barriers . For example, the Mongols expanded their territory in less than a hundred years to over 6,000 miles using lightning–fast archers who rode on horsebacks . An irrefutable fact about empires is the fact that they never hold together for long as they fall apart. However, as time has been passing, changes have been exhibited in the empires that are being formed. As such, historians normally divide imperialism into two types , formal, as well as informal imperialism. Consequently, this article explains the differences that exist between formal imperialism and informal imperialism by use of examples.
To begin with, the literal meanings of the two types of imperialism act as a difference between them. For instance, informal imperialism may be taken to signify an authority without any trace of formality, also without any fixed rules set to control. As a matter of fact, it may be defined to be an authority without the usual forms that symbolize authority . Clearly, this is the opposite of all the values that formal imperialism encompasses. Formal imperialism creates a
Example Of A Informal Interview
Informal Interview Essay
The interview I had was with a professional who graduated from the University of Texas at Dallas with a degree in Supply Chain Management. The individual I interviewed was Sanel Thomas, alumni of Alpha Kappa Psi, in which, I am currently in the pledging process of. This interview I had with Sanel was straightforward, we met on campus, just because his daily field op varies from time to time. Sanel is currently the Senior Director of Chick–fil–A, in which he works with the fifth largest grossing CFA in the nation. Although what Sanel currently does has nothing to do with his degree in Supply Chain, Sanel is a business professional who learns new things on the job and develops skills on his journey. After conducting this interview, I have learned quite a bit about living the cooperate life, and just the skills needed to be successful in the business field, or any field in general.
The first thing I learned from Sanel was that he was very open–minded...show more content...
Sanel has been with CFA with quite sometime and he loved what he did during college, and so worked his way up from being a normal employer to a senior director. That to me showed, that you need to be dedicated in the employer you want to work with it, but also passionate for what you want to do in life. Along with being dedicated to the employer and job, it is almost equally important to know what you are getting your self into. From Sanel's experience it seems like Chick–Fil–A is not an easy job, but it can be rewarding. Sanel is currently taking a on a leadership program from Chick–Fil–A where he will be going across the United States to several restaurant locations for five to six weeks at a time where he will be making changes on how restaurants do daily operations to increase efficiency and